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Space and planetary sciences
What is the solar influence on climate? Overview of activities during CAWSES-II
Seppälä A, Matthes K, Randall C E, Mironova I A
Climate, Atmosphere, Solar irradiance, Total solar irradiance, TSI, Solar spectral irradiance, SSI, Energetic particles, EPP, Cosmic rays
Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) impact on the atmosphere. Main direct and indirect impacts from EPP (including EEP and SPE). EPP ionisation is focused on the polar regions leading to production of HOx and NOx shown in the figure. Transport processes are shown with grey dotted lines, while coupling mechanisms are indicated with grey dashed lines. Direct chemical impacts are shown with black arrows.
This paper presents an overview of the main advances in the Key Questions identified by the Task Group ‘What is the Solar Influence on Climate’ by the SCOSTEP CAWSES-II science program. We go through different aspects of solar forcing from solar irradiance, including total solar irradiance (TSI) and solar spectral irradiance (SSI), to energetic particle forcing, including energetic particle precipitation (EPP) and cosmic rays (CR). Besides discussing the main advances in the timeframe 2009 to 2013, we also illustrate the proposed mechanism for climate variability for the different solar variability sources listed above. The key questions are as follows: What is the importance of spectral variations to solar influences on climate? What is the effect of energetic particle forcing on the whole atmosphere and what are the implications for climate? How well do models reproduce and predict solar irradiance and energetic particle influences on the atmosphere and climate?