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    Solid earth sciences

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    Nationwide urban ground deformation in Japan for 15 years detected by ALOS and Sentinel-1

    Yu Morishita, Ryu Sugimoto, Ryosuke Nakamura, Chiaki Tsutsumi, Ryo Natsuaki态 Masanobu ShimadaYu Morishita, Ryu Sugimoto, Ryosuke Nakamura, Chiaki Tsutsumi, Ryo Natsuaki, Masanobu Shimada

    ALOS, Ground deformation, InSAR, Japan, Nationwide, Sentinel-1, Subsidence, Time series analysis

    (top) Footprints of the ALOS frames and AOIs in this study. (1)-(6) are the displacement time series in representative AOIs where significant ground deformation was detected.

    (bottom) Deformation in Matsushiro, Nagano. a and b are the vertical deformation velocities derived from ALOS and Sentinel-1, respectively. c is the LOS deformation time series at P2011. d indicates epicenters of the Matsushiro earthquake swarm from August 1965 to May 1967.

    InSAR time series analysis has become a major tool for nationwide land deformation monitoring. Sentinel-1 SAR data have enabled us to measure and monitor ground deformation globally with high accuracy and resolution through InSAR time series analysis, due to its constant and frequent global coverage and open data policy since 2014. Although several datasets from previous SAR satellites were available before Sentinel-1, such comprehensive deformation monitoring was not performed due to several limitations such as data quality, analysis technique, data policy, and processing capacity at that time. However, since a large amount of ALOS InSAR products and an open-source InSAR time series analysis tool LiCSBAS have become openly and freely available, we can easily derive the deformation from 2006 to 2011 by using them. In this study, we detected the deformation time series and velocity in all major urban areas in Japan from 2006 to 2011 and compared the results with the deformation from 2014 to 2020 detected by Sentinel-1 data. The two deformation datasets with different time periods revealed various 15-year deformation histories, such as long-term constant subsidence in Tomakomai and Niigata, changes in deformation areas and/or velocities in Hirosaki, Kujyukuri, Kanazawa, and Matsushiro, and appearance or disappearance of deformation in Joso, Yoyogi, and Kyoto. Future abundant and continuous SAR data acquisitions will reveal more long-term deformation transitions and help to understand the details of the mechanisms.