** Progress in Earth and Planetary Science is the official journal of the Japan Geoscience Union, published in collaboration with its 50 society members.

    >>Japan Geoscience Union

    >>Links to 50 society members

    • Progress in Earth and Planetary Science
    • Progress in Earth and Planetary Science
    • Progress in Earth and Planetary Science
    • Progress in Earth and Planetary Science
    • Progress in Earth and Planetary Science
    Progress in Earth and Planetary Science

    Gallery View of PEPS Articles


    Interdisciplinary research


    Paleoceanography of the northwestern Pacific across the Early–Middle Pleistocene boundary (Marine Isotope Stages 20–18)

    Yoshimi KUBOTA, Yuki HANEDA, Koji KAMEO, Takuya ITAKI, Hiroki HAYASHI, Martin J. HEAD, Yusuke SUGANUMA, Makoto OKADA

    Chiba composite section, Early–Middle Pleistocene Boundary, Marine Isotope Stages 20–18, Kuroshio, Oyashio, East Asian monsoon, principal component analysis, foraminiferal isotopes, Mg/Ca

    Results of principal component analysis (PCA) in the Chiba composite section: leading mode (PC1), second mode (PC2), and third mode (PC3).

    Ground-based remote sensing using multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) was used to conduct continuous simultaneous observations of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations at Chiba (35.63° N, 140.10° E, 21 m a.s.l.) and Tsukuba (36.06° N, 140.13° E, 35 m a.s.l.), Japan, for 7 years from 2013 to 2019. These are urban and suburban sites, respectively, in the greater Tokyo metropolitan area. NO2 and HCHO are considered to be proxies for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), respectively, both of which are major precursors of tropospheric O3. The mean concentrations below an altitude of 1 km were analyzed as planetary boundary layer (PBL) concentrations. For a more spatially representative analysis around the urban area of Chiba, four MAX-DOAS instruments directed at four different azimuth directions (north, east, west, and south) were operated simultaneously and their data were unified. During the 7-year period, the satellite observations indicated an abrupt decrease in the tropospheric NO2 concentration over East Asia, including China. This suggested that the transboundary transport of O3 originating from the Asian continent was likely suppressed or almost unchanged during the period. Over this time period, the MAX-DOAS observations revealed the presence of almost-constant annual variations in the PBL O3 concentration, whereas reductions in NO2 and HCHO concentrations occurred at rates of approximately 6–10%/year at Chiba. These changes provided clear observational evidence that a decreasing NOx concentration significantly reduced the amount of O3 quenched through NO titration under VOC-limited conditions in the urban area. Under the dominant VOC-limited conditions, the MAX-DOAS-derived concentration ratio of HCHO/NO2 was found to be below unity in all months. Thus, the multi-component observations from MAX-DOAS provided a unique data set of O3, NO2, and HCHO concentrations for analyzing PBL O3 variations.