** Progress in Earth and Planetary Science is the official journal of the Japan Geoscience Union, published in collaboration with its 50 society members.

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    • Progress in Earth and Planetary Science
    • Progress in Earth and Planetary Science
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    • Progress in Earth and Planetary Science
    Progress in Earth and Planetary Science

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    Atmospheric and hydrospheric sciences


    Scalability of future climate changes across Japan examined with large-ensemble simulations at +1.5 K, +2 K, and +4 K global warming levels

    Nosaka M, Ishii M, Shiogama H, Mizuta R, Murata A, Kawase H, Sasaki H

    Climate change, Regional climate model, Large-ensemble climate experiments, Paris Agreement, Surface air temperature, Precipitation

    Changes in climatological mean surface air temperature (a) and annual maximum daily precipitation (b). The bars with solid line indicate standard errors of the ensemble mean and the bars with dashed line indicate standard deviations.

    Large-ensemble climate experiments were performed to simulate future climates for a + 1.5 K rise in the global mean surface air temperatures relative to preindustrial levels as a subset of the database for Policy Decision making for future climate change (d4PDF), using the Non-Hydrostatic Regional Climate Model (NHRCM) with 20 km grid spacing. Along with present climate, + 2 K and + 4 K experimental outputs from the d4PDF already available, we investigated responses of surface air temperature (SAT) and precipitation on regional scales over Japan to global warming. The reproducibility of the present climate experiment is satisfactory to investigate future changes in the Japanese climate, and dynamical downscaling from the global to the regional climate states improves the frequency of heavy daily precipitation. In the future, SAT over Japan rises linearly with and faster than the global mean SAT. The meridional contrast of SAT rises becomes more pronounced as global warming progresses. Winter precipitation decreases/increases linearly in the western/eastern Japan, reflected by weakening of future winter monsoons. Annual maximum daily precipitation (R1d) shows a closely linear increase with the global SAT rise, but annual precipitation is mostly unchanged. The global mean SAT change from + 1.5 to + 2 K enhances R1d by 2.7% over the Japanese Islands, although the increase of R1d varies by regions. The increase in R1d is 5% in northern Japan, where the SAT increases are greater than those in other regions.