** Progress in Earth and Planetary Science is the official journal of the Japan Geoscience Union, published in collaboration with its 50 society members.

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    • Progress in Earth and Planetary Science
    • Progress in Earth and Planetary Science
    • Progress in Earth and Planetary Science
    • Progress in Earth and Planetary Science
    Progress in Earth and Planetary Science

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    Space and planetary sciences

    Unseasonal development of post-sunset F-region irregularities over Southeast Asia on 28 July 2014: 2. Forcing from below

    Ajith K, Tulasi S, Carter B, Kumar S, Yamamoto M, Yokoyama T, Gurubaran S, Sripathi S, Hozumi K, Groves K, Caton R

    Equatorial plasma bubbles, Pre-reversal enhancement, Neutral winds

    An unseasonal development of Equatorial Plasma Bubble (EPB)/Equatorial Spread-F (ESF) activity in a wide longitudinal sector over India and Southeast Asia during the post-sunset hours of 28 July 2014 has been investigated in detail using the multiple independent observations in this paper and a companion paper by (Prog Earth Planet Sci 5:10, 2018). This post-sunset ESF/EPB event was preceded by a substantial elevation of the equatorial F-layer due to strong pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) during the season which is climatologically unfavorable for strong PRE and post-sunset EPBs. In this paper, it is found that a strong equatorward meridional neutral wind at off-equatorial E-region and enhanced longitudinal gradient of equatorial electrojet appear to be the responsible candidates for the enhanced PRE and EPB development on 28 July 2014. These changes in the local wind system and PRE are found to have an apparent connection with the planetary wave forces of lower atmospheric origin. Both the post-sunset height rise (PSSR) and lower thermospheric meridional neutral wind consistently exhibit quasi-2-day planetary wave-like oscillations during 20–31 July 2014 with maximum amplitudes on 28 July 2014. This study emphasizes the role of planetary wave forces from the lower atmosphere that can alter the local neutral wind system and E-region conductivities that may lead to the development of strong PRE and EPB activity which were otherwise climatologically unfavorable for post-sunset EPB/ESF development.