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    Atmospheric and hydrospheric sciences

    Meridional march of diurnal rainfall over Jakarta, Indonesia, observed with a C-band Doppler radar: an overview of the HARIMAU2010 campaign

    Mori S, Hamada JI, Hattori M, Wu PM, Katsumata M, Endo N, Ichiyanagi K, Hashiguchi H, Arbain AA, Sulistyowati R, Lestari S, Syamsudin F, Manik T, and Yamanaka MD

    Indonesian maritime continent (IMC), Land–sea breeze circulation, Diurnal cycle, Cross-equatorial northerly surge (CENS), Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO), Cold tongue (CT)

    (a) Meridional variation of reflectivity at a height of 2 km over Jakarta observed with the C-band Doppler radar (CDR) during the campaign period averaged over a 100 km width (106.25°E–107.15°E) in the east–west direction from Serpong CDR site and (b) its mean diurnal cycle (duplicated twice). Thin black solid horizontal lines indicate the averaged latitudinal location of coastline (6.0°S) of the western part of the Jawa Island. Latitudinal locations of Pramuka (5.74°S) and Bogor (6.58°S) are also indicated by thin dashed horizontal black lines. Thick dashed lines in the panel (b) indicate estimated speed of DRMMs in approximately 2 m s-1 (5 m s-1) southward (northward) during the early morning (late evening) as for references.

    This paper presents an overview of the HARIMAU2010 campaign focusing on convective activity with the diurnal rainfall meridional march (DRMM) over Jakarta, which is located on the northern coast of Jawa Island of the Indonesian maritime continent (IMC), based on 1-month intensive observations by a C-band Doppler radar and multi-point atmospheric sounding array conducted during 16 January–14 February 2010. The campaign period corresponded to a phase after large-scale Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) active convections passed over Jakarta (MJO inactive phase). The cross-equatorial northerly surge (CENS) intruded into the Jawa Sea with a cold tongue (CT) of sea surface temperature (SST) in the beginning of the period (CENS active period: 16–26 January), and then, it started to retreat (transition period: 27 January–05 February); afterward, only a few signs of it were apparent (CENS inactive period: 06–14 February). The observational results showed that (1) rainfall over Jakarta has the nature of DRMM during the MJO inactive phase at least, (2) the DRMM is likely driven primarily by “land-breeze”-like local meridional circulation, and (3) the meridional spatiotemporal variation of rainfall over Jakarta is thus controlled by activities of both the CENS and CT over the Jawa Sea.