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Atmospheric and hydrospheric sciences
A review of atmospheric chemistry observation at mountain sites
Okamoto S, Tanimoto H
Atmospheric observation, High-altitude station, Long-range transport, Seasonal cycle, Long-term trend, Biomass burning, Anthropogenic pollution
Map showing the distribution of high-altitude mountain stations discussed in this paper. Circles with abbreviations denote stations providing the data presented in this paper. ASK Assekrem, CHA Chiricahua NM, CMN Monte Cimone, GRB Great Basin NP, HPO Mt. Happo, ISK Issyk-Kul, IZO Izãna, JFJ Jungfraujoch, KVV Krvavec, LAV Lassen Volcanic NP, LLN Lulin, LQO La Quiaca Observatorio, MBO Mt. Bachelor Observatory, MKN Mt. Kenya, MDY Mondy, MLO Mauna Loa, NWR Niwot Ridge, PMO Pico Mountain Observatory, PYR Nepal Climate Observatory–Pyramid, SNB Sonnblick, TAR Tanah Rata, WHI Whistler Mountain, WLG Mt. Waliguan, YEL Yellowstone NP, YOS Yosemite NP, ZSF Zugspitze–Schneefernerhaus, ZUG Zugspitze–Gipfel. Triangles with abbreviations denote stations for which data are not presented but are reviewed in this paper. ARO Arosa, FWS Mt. Fuji, KSL Kislovodsk.
Located far from anthropogenic emission sources, high-altitude mountain stations are considered to be ideal sites for monitoring climatic and environmentally important baseline changes in free tropospheric trace gases and aerosols. In addition, the observations taken at these stations are often used to study the long-range transport of dust as well as anthropogenic and biomass burning pollutants from source regions and to evaluate the performance of global and regional models. In this paper, we summarize the results from past and ongoing field measurements of atmospheric constituents at high-altitude stations across the globe, with particular emphasis on reactive trace species including tropospheric ozone, along with its precursors such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total reactive nitrogen, and nonmethane hydrocarbons. Over the past decades, our understanding of the temporal variability and meteorological mechanisms of long-range transport has advanced in tandem with progress in instrumentation and modeling. Finally, the future needs of atmospheric chemistry observations at mountain sites are addressed.