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    MF and HF radar techniques for investigating the dynamics and structure of the 50 to 110 km height region: a review

    Reid I M

    Medium-frequency radar techniques, High-frequency radar techniques, Partial reflection radar, Spaced antenna technique, Full correlation analysis, Mesosphere lower thermosphere region, D region, MLT region dynamics, Meteor radar, Imaging Doppler interferometer

    MF and HF radars used to measure the MLT region. Green indicates retired radars, blue current radars, and yellow dynasondes that have operated as IDI radars. See text and Tables 2 and 3 for further details.

    The application of medium-frequency (MF) and high-frequency (HF) partial reflection radar to investigate the neutral upper atmosphere is one of the oldest such techniques still regularly in use. The techniques have been continuously improved and remain a robust and reliable method of obtaining wind velocities, turbulence intensities, electron densities, and measurements of atmospheric structure in the mesosphere lower thermosphere (MLT) region (50 to 110 km). In this paper, we review recent developments, discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the technique, and consider possible improvements.